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And then, the water vapor promotes the hydrolysis of TBOT dissolved in ethanol.
After clarification, TBOT dissolved in 18 g of isopropyl alcohol was added in drops and stirred for 3 h.
In this article, highly transparent thermal stable crack-free silicone/titania hybrid films with high RI were successfully fabricated via a sol-gel process using silane coupling agent with long alkyl chain (n-dodecyltrimethoxysilane), DPS, and TBOT. The source materials were readily attainable, and the process is energy saving without complicated manipulations.
The TBOT provided weighted price averages for a pack of 20 cigarettes, including pack, carton, and machine sales of both brand and generic cigarettes (Orzechowski and Walker 2009).
Briefly, the specified weight of [H.sub.2]Pt[Cl.sub.6] x 6[H.sub.2]O was added into a standard beaker (150 mL) containing 35 mL of ethanol and 5 mL of TBOT by stirring.
Dimethyl NDC, ethylene glycol, 1, 4-benzenedimethanol, tertbutyl acrylate, and TBOT were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co.
Firstly, a sol-gel solution, denoted by solution A, was prepared by dispersing 17 mL of TBOT and 0.2 mL of Hn[O.sub.3] in 40 mL of [C.sub.2][H.sub.5]OH with ultrasonic vibration for 30 min.
In a typical procedure, 1.052 g Sn[Cl.sub.4] * 5[H.sub.2]O and the calculated volume of TBOT with various molar ratios of Ti/Sn (4-12) were dissolved in 60 mL of anhydrous ethanol under stirring; then the calculated amount of PS microspheres (100 g PS microspheres per mole of solutes) was added to the prepared solution under magnetic stirring.
Tetrabutyl titanate (TBOT, AR grade) was obtained from Tianjing Kermel Chemical Reagents development centre (Tianjing, China).
Ferric chloride, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT), alcohol, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid were all provided by Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.
Tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT), diethanolamine (DEA), and absolute ethanol were used as starting materials.
It has also been shown that a catalyst, such as tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT), can be used to induce compatibility of p(ET/HBA) to thermoplastics [7-9].
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