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The way in which CD8+ T cells act to exacerbate EAE is most likely due to the contribution of proinflammatory subsets such as the Tc1 and Tc17 cell.
Patients and methods: The frequency and distribution of the Tc17 cells were identified using double immunofluorescent staining in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs), and synovial tissues in RA patients.
Vela-Ojeda et al., "Role of CD8 regulatory T cells versus Tc1 and Tc17 cells in the development of human graft-versus-host disease," Journal of Immunology Research, vol.
Tc17 cells possess a high plasticity and can convert to IL-17/IFN-a-double producing cells (Tc17/IFN-a cells) permitted by IL-12 signaling, with distinct properties from Tc1 lineage.[sup] Tc17/IFN-a cells are highly cytotoxic and exhibit strong antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo .
The present study was designed to determine the utility of Tc1 and Tc17 cells, as opposed to CD8 + Treg, as predictors of GVHD development and severity.
In particular, they reported expansions of Tc1, Th1, Tc17, and CD8+IL-10+ T cells following treatment.
Tc17 cells also influence inflammation in its initial stages by enhancing the pathogenicity of Th17 cells .
A different subset of [CD8.sup.+] cells has been related to this process, but one type, known as Tc17, can express IL-17 in the presence or absence of IFN-[gamma] and IL-4.
Following pathogen recognition in context of MHC class I on antigen presenting cells (APCs), the naive [CD8.sup.+] T cell differentiates into Tc1, Tc2, or Tc17 cells and begins expressing high levels of KRLG-1 (killer lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1) and the proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-[gamma] that mediate their biological activities [16-19].
In addition to Th17 cells, IL-17 secretion can also be induced by IL-6, IL-1[beta], TGF-[beta], and IL-23 in other T cells such as [CD8.sup.+] T cells (Tc17 cells), regulatory T cells (Treg17 cells), gamma delta T cells ([gamma]dT17 cells), and invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) [24-26].
A recent report describes that the CD8 T cells producing IL-17 (Tc17) are involved in the MS pathogenesis.
In the rat testis of EAO, it was demonstrated that not only [CD4.sup.+] cells (Th17) but also [CD8.sup.+] T cells produce IL-17 (Tc17).
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