TCDCATauro-Chenodeoxycholic Acid
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External bile acid standards, including cholic acid (CA), lithocholic acid (LCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), [alpha]-muricholic acid ([alpha]MCA), [beta]-muricholic acid ([beta]MCA), [omega]-muricholic acid ([omega]MCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), tauro chenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), tauro-[alpha]-muricholic acid (T[alpha]MCA), and tauro-[beta]-muricholic acid (T[beta]MCA), were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.
Compared with vehicle-treated mice, TCDF-treated [Ahr.sup.+/+] mice had significantly higher levels of DCA in the small intestine and feces (Figure 4A and 4C), and they also had significantly higher levels of three conjugated bile acids (GCA, TCDCA, and T[beta]MCA) (Figure 4B,D) that were affected by gut microbial metabolism, as previously reported (Sayin et al.
The increases in TCDCA and T[beta]MCA by TCDF were associated with the inhibition of the FXR signaling pathway.