TCIPATumour Cell Induced Platelet Aggregation
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CTCs can evade the effective antitumoral activity of NK cells via induction of platelets to aggregate, representing a potential mechanism of tumor cells for platelet activation (tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation, TCIPA) [103, 104].
In addition to TCIPA to protect from antitumoral immune cell activity, tumor cells can selectively reduce tumor-suppressive TGF-[beta]-signaling facilitating tumor progression through the suppression of the host immune system [112, 113].
Abbreviations TME: Tumor microenvironment EMT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition MET: Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition HMEC: Human mammary epithelial cells MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase MAT: Mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transition AMT: Amoeboid-to-mesenchymal transition CAT: Collective to amoeboid transition MSC: Mesenchymal stroma/stem cells CTCs: Circulating tumor cells DTCs: Disseminated tumor cells CSCs: Cancer stem cell-like cells TICs: Tumor-initiating cells NK cells: Natural killer cells TCIPA: Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation.