Although the TCIT program retained many aspects of PCIT, numerous adaptations were made in order to implement the PCIT model across entire classrooms of teachers and children as a preventive approach.
Table 3 Adaptation of PCIT to TCIT PCIT TCIT Single parent/family [right arrow] Group training Single child [right arrow] Multiple children Clinic setting [right arrow] Natural setting Standard CDI/PDI skills [right arrow] Selected skill emphasis Data-driven [right arrow] Time-limited Electronic "bug" [right arrow] In-room coaching Verbal feedback [right arrow] Verbal and written feedback Standardized discipline [right arrow] Collaborative discipline procedure procedure design Group training.
As in PCIT, we designed TCIT to proceed along two distinct phases, CDI and TDI.
Therefore, TCIT teachers initially began practicing skills in homework and coaching sessions with individual children and then quickly progressed across each phase to applying them with more children (e.g., at the water table or an art activity with 3-4 children and eventually during circle time with up to the entire class).
Our TCIT program was designed to minimize classroom disruption and maximize generalizability as early as possible.
Our TCIT model is most similar in this respect to that of Tiano and McNeil (2006), which involved in-class coaching and observation of the effects of training directly in the classroom.
Therefore, our TCIT model did not attempt to eliminate those types of interactions between teachers and students during practice and focused instead on promoting the PRIDE skills, decreasing negative comments, and reducing attention to mild inappropriate behavior.
The behavior management procedures introduced in TCIT also needed to be modified.
Therefore, TCIT trainers shadowed teachers in their classrooms and provided feedback as they engaged students.
In TCIT, trainers provided teachers with immediate verbal feedback as the classroom situation allowed.
TCIT teachers from each classroom jointly created a "Sit & Watch" plan from a general framework in order to establish a discipline program consistent with their classroom needs.
Table 4 Sit & Watch Planning in TCIT Sit & Watch Element Examples Behaviors for which Sit & Watch Fighting--hitting, kicking, or will be used biting another child or the teacher Brief statement at beginning of "Because you threw a block, you have Sit & Watch of what the child did to sit and watch how the other children play," or "We don't throw toys.