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There were no significant areas where the training with TCSSL group showed a significantly greater pre- to post-MRI experiment increase in rGMV compared with the active control group.
The present study investigated the effect of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems.
As described in the Introduction, it was previously shown that training with TCSSL leads to adaptation toward TCSSL (meaning one becomes able to comprehend more fluently) and time-compressed speech in different languages [1,4] as well as to changes in neural activity in response to time-compressed speech as the subject adapts to time-compressed speech [5].
Thus, the present study showed that midterm training with TCSSL resulted in increased default activity in regions involved in semantic and text comprehension.
However, it has been suggested that adaptation to TCSSL involves premotor neural changes associated with phonological processing [49], and these observed changes may also involve the neural changes involved in phonological processing.
[14], although a number of neural changes involving the left temporal areas were observed in response to training with TCSSL, no transfer effects were observed in the performance of cognitive tests because there were no improvements in English listening and reading skills.
The FA increase in the training with TCSSL group in the left AF may reflect myelination processes that made it possible to adapt to faster speech comprehension.
The present results suggest that training with TCSSL led to a decrease in rGMV, although the reason for this change remains unclear.
First, we did not establish a passive control group and we compared the effects of training with TCSSL with the active control training.
Consistent with most of our hypotheses, our results confirm that training with TCSSL causes plasticity in multiple neural mechanisms involving the left STG.
Caption: Figure 1: The effect of training with TCSSL on RS-fMRI measures.
Caption: Figure 2: The effect of training with TCSSL on FA.