TDBD's "Old European" model accurately described the German legal profession before 1989.
(104) Trained to be judges by the state controlled education system and limited to small firms by state legislation, pre-1989 Germany fit the "Old European" model TDBD described.
In TDBD's account the Big Six accounting firms occupied a central role in increasing the competitive pressures on European lawyers.
(155) The legal industry viewed the accounting firms as attracting less skilled lawyers, (156) and even before Enron, in-house counsel for the largest European companies, the third of TDBD's actors, feared that the use of accounting firms for legal work would lead to "enormous conflict of interest problems." (157)