TDVRPTime Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem
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The time-dependent VRP (TDVRP) was first formulated by Malandraki and Daskin [3, 4], who proposed dividing the time horizon in M slices and assigning a constant travel time [t.sup.m.sub.ij] for each arc (i, j) and slice m.
However, the TDVRP is not completely correspondent with the actual congestions as a result of the following two points despite the fact that the planning gap (difference between plan and actual) has been reduced by the research of TDVRP.
The above findings undermine the hypothesis of the studies of TDVRP because the travel time [t.sup.m.sub.ij] for each arc (i, j) and slice m should be a variable, not a constant, even at the same time of a day.