Bacterial peptidoglycan can enter gastric epithelial cells via the TFSS, and it then stimulates the cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) to activate NF-[kappa]B for induction of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and/or tumor necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF[alpha]).
pylori mutants possessing functional TFSS but lacking the cagA gene efficiently induced DSBs in gastric epithelial cells, CagA is unlikely to be a major inducer of this type of DNA damage.
pylori: Helicobacter pylori; I[kappa]B: Inhibitor of NF-[kappa]B; MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; MARK: microtubule affinity-regulating kinase; NBS: N-terminal binding sequence; PAI: pathogenicity island; PAR1: Partitioning defective-1; PS: phosphatidylserine; RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; SFK: Src family kinase; SHP1/2: SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1/2; TFSS: type IV secretion system.
coli reductions between matured TFSs or controls ([t.sub.0] = G0/day 22) and gastric acid incubation time ([t.sub.1] = G1, G30, or G120 min) were analyzed with respect to the experimental factors "strain," "fermentation," and "gastric acid incubation time."
In other words, bacterial reduction differed the most between matured TFSs and corresponding controls.
ANOVA on the results from matured TFSs and batter controls separately demonstrated statistically significant variations in bacterial reductions between the different E.
The resulting data from TFSs and control batters exposed to the in vitro digestion challenge model showed a marked difference in E.
19-46, for the 1994-1995 TFS); and Luekens et al., (2004, Appendix B, for the 2000-2001 TFS) provide more detailed information about the following year TFSs.
The TFSs provided information about leavers, teachers who left teaching employment following each of the three SASS school years.
For teachers continuing teaching employment from one school year to the next, the TFSs provided information about who transferred from one teaching area to a different area (such as from special education to elementary education) following the three SASS years.
For teachers continuing teaching employment from one school year to the next, the TFSs provided information about movers who migrated from one public school to a different school following the three SASS years.