It should be noted, that virtually all TFWS in construction occupations were male.
Of particular interest are the upward trends among immigrants and TFWS as well as the relatively poor performance of young workers in the second half of the period.
Gains apparent in Figure 1 are now erased, with only TFWS making real gains during the period.
First, while the effect is fairly small, immigrants and women make observable percentage gains during the two booms, but lose ground during busts (as do youth for the first half of the period), TFWS follow a similar trend, except that both their increases and their decreases are delayed in relation to other groups.
The volatility in employment for TFWS is of a magnitude unseen for any other group.
Also, lower-skilled youth may find themselves in direct competition with the increased numbers of TFWS coming to perform these lower-skilled tasks.
The volatile nature of TFW employment cycles suggests TFWS have become a new secondary source of labour to supplement and possibly supplant women, Indigenous workers, and other secondary supply sources.
The hypervolatility of TFWS may be explained by their status of partial citizenship, where they are afforded only some of the rights of citizenship granted to the other secondary groups, TFWS are more dependent on the employer and they possess fewer options for alternative employment.
A second observation is that the boom-and-bust cycle for TFWS is delayed compared to other secondary labour supply groups.
However, on the other end of the cycle, employers may be reluctant to release the TFWS for whom they have invested time and money, TFWS are also perceived by many construction employers to be superior in many ways to Canadian workers in terms of their work ethic, commitment, and obedience.
The effect of TFWS on overall construction employment patterns is less clear, in large part because so little changed in the overall employment distribution between the identified groups, TFWS have not undermined the position of Canadian-born men in the sector, in terms of employment status.
The influx of TFWS occurred during a period of above-average employment growth in construction (when taking cyclical patterns into effect).