The early age at TGCT diagnosis, together with established associations with congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism (Cook et al.
According to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis, TGCT, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and reduced sperm count originate from a common fetal disorder hampering the normal male testicular development (Skakkebaek et al.
However, in TGCT
, with incidence peaking in the third decade, it is imperative that treatment be focused not only on a cure, but also on long-term benefit.
An additional consideration regarding the correct recognition of these 2 entities is that the percentage of embryonal carcinoma in a mixed TGCT is considered a prognostic indicator and an important consideration in deciding whether patients who have clinical stage I disease are good candidates for surveillance management protocols.
As a general marker for TGCT, SALL4 is frequently expressed in teratoma, (41) but its expression in dermoid and epidermoid cysts is, to our knowledge, unknown.
are rare in our country as in the other parts of world i.
The next step, which involves a full examination into the investigational agent's impact on the benefit/risk for TGCT
, has now begun.
A human genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a cohort of 488 patients with symptoms of TDS, comprising 212 patients with TGCT
, 138 with cryptorchidism, 31 with hypospadias, and 107 with infertility found an association with genetic markers located in the region of TGF$R3 (transforming growth factor, beta receptor III) and BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) (Dalgaard et al.
Therefore, a suggested immunohistochemical panel to perform when considering the diagnosis of an adult TGCT
should include the following stains: inhibin, MIC2 (013), and calretinin, as these 3 stains are often positive, and negative stains including synaptophysin, CD45, pancytokeratin, and/or epithelial membrane antigen (Table 1).
We are pleased that the FDA recognizes the unmet need for the treatment of TGCT
and we look forward to working closely with the Agency on the expedited development of this potential non-surgical treatment for patients with TGCT
Furthermore, chlordane is classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2001) and has been associated with risk of TGCT
(Hardell et al.
cases diagnosed through 1999 (n = 49; 27-62 years of age at diagnosis) were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Cancer Registry.