"During a winter thunderstorm in Kanazawa, our monitors detected a simultaneous TGF
and lightning strike.
The intricate cross talk among various growth factor signaling pathways in HCC growth involves insulin-like growth factors (IGF), platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF), transforming growth factors (TGF
), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), and others .
Abbreviations ChIP: Chromatin immunoprecipitation ECM: Extracellular matrix EGF: Epidermal growth factor receptor ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase HPCs: Hepatic progenitor cells HSCs: Hepatic stellate cells PDGF: Platelet-derived growth factor PDGFR: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor RSK: Ribosomal S6 kinase RT-PCR: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction TGF
: Transforming growth factor YB-1: Y-box protein-1.
Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs
) are submillisecond-duration intense bursts of gamma rays readily detectable from low-Earth orbit (Fishman et al.
occur unpredictably and fleetingly, with durations less than a thousandth of a second, and remain poorly understood.
Before being upgraded, the GBM could capture only TGFs
that were bright enough to trigger the instrument's on-board system, which meant many weaker events were missed.
Even more surprising, TGFs
contain antimatter, the doppelganger of normal matter.
Fermi has detected 130 TGFs
. In four of them, positrons also struck the satellite.
Platelets (PLTs) contain an assortment of growth factors (GFs), in particular PLT-derived GFs (PDGFs), transforming GFs (TGFs
), and vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) (1).
The globe experiences lightning some 50 times a second, yet the details of what initiates this common occurrence and what effects it has on the atmosphere - lightning may be linked to incredibly powerful and energetic bursts called terrestrial gamma ray flashes, or TGFs
-- remains a mystery.
Osteogenic induced BM MSC (day 3 after induction) served as positive control for the ERK1/2 activation (Figure 3) since the activation of ERK1/2 is required to induce the expression of matrix producing genes, such as collagens, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or transforming growth factors (TGFs