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It can be seen that at a terpolymer content of 20%, the TGTG' conformation is increased.
These results indicate that only the [alpha]-phase with a TGTG conformation is present.
Through the addition of PVP-coated MWCNTs in PVDF, the usual TGTG conformation of [alpha]-polymorph is prevented from crystallizing, yielding instead the Ti' conformation of [beta]-polymorph.
(45) calculated the total energies of TT and TGTG' conformation chains.
The [alpha]-phase has trans-gauche-trans-gauche prime (tgtg') conformation and [beta]-phase presents a planar zigzag all trans (ttt) conformation (17).
It is well-known that PVDF held three crystalline structures depending on the preparation conditions, i.e., form I ([beta]-type crystalline in planar zigzag conformation, orthorhombic), form II ([alpha]-type crystalline in TGTG, monoclinic), and form III ([gamma]-type crystalline in TTTGTTTG, monoclinic) .
Isotactic polystyrene generally forms TGTG 3/1 helices when it crystallizes into a trigonal unit cell (15).
All these structures consist of the same 3/1 helices of (tgtg) chain conformations.
The [Alpha]-crystalline phase is composed of TGTG' conformation in which the fluorine atom is arrayed spirally outside of the back-bone chain.
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