and for several years thereafter, during a period that saw the THHK face
the THHK, through which the ideas of active citizenship materialized in
The THHK actively negotiated with the Dutch colonial
Among Chinese Peranakans, the THHK promoted the "teachings of
organizational statute, the THHK's leaders used the term "adat
The THHK's introduction of Confucianism was challenged,
Tiemersma raised five questions for the THHK, of which the
's foremost achievement was that of establishing modern schools for the Chinese in the Dutch East Indies, which had hitherto been non-existent.
Adding another dimension to Iskandar Jusuf's perspective on the THHK
school, Didi Kwartanada places his focus on its connections outside the Dutch East Indies and its representation of new modernity at the time, when the conventional modernity was a concept closely associated with Dutch social and cultural image.
As in Singapore, the THHK's programme for religious and social change aimed at totally abolishing 'superstitions' and 'idolatrous practices', reforming wedding and funeral customs, and elevating Confucius as a rational, moral philosopher.
For the expansion and impact of the THHK see Lea Williams, Overseas Chinese nationalism: The genesis of the pan-Chinese movement in Indonesia, 1900-16 (Glencoe: Free Press, 1960).
Lee was also involved in establishing the Lie Loen Hwee in Batavia, a Chinese debating club; Ik Po, 16 May 1905; Nio Joe Lan, Riwajat 40 taon dari THHK Batavia (Jakarta: THHK, 1940), pp.