gene mutations, 453 mutation is the most common one.
Seven genes were identified: BCAR3, LZTS, SLC5A1, TCF20, WT1, ZNF621, and THRB (transcript TR[beta]2), potentially regulated by PPARs (Table 1).
Interestingly, the expression of THRB (TR[beta]2 variant) gene was also strongly increased by the treatment with trans10,cis12CLA over 18.15-, 17.2-, and 7.9-fold in PPAR[delta]-, PPAR[gamma]-, and PPAR[alpha]- overexpressing cells, respectively, but not observed for EFA-CLA-treated cells.
THRA (thyroid hormone receptor, alpha) and THRB encode thyroid hormone receptors THRA and THRB, and each has different patterns of gene expression and different splicing products.
Mutations in the THRB protein explain 85%-90% of cases of resistance to thyroid hormone.
This is the first study in Turkish population investigating THRB
gene variations in patients clinically diagnosed as having thyroid hormone resistance.
A number of important direct miRNA-mRNA regulations were described in PTC, as hsa-miR-155 downregulating APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), THRB (thyroid hormone receptor beta) regulation by hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-146a, or hsa-miR-146b-5p regulating SMAD4 (SMAD family member 4) [17-19].
Jendrzejewski et al., "Thyroid hormone receptor (THRB) is a major target gene for microRNAs deregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
THs (primarily through the biologically active form of [T.sub.3]) function as signaling molecules that interact with two nuclear receptors, TR-[alpha] and TR-[beta] [whose genes are designated as THRA and THRB
, respectively, in GenBank (2006)], and alter their transcription activation and repression activities (Yen 2001).
Jendrzejewski et al., "Thyroid hormone receptor [beta] (THRB
) is a major target gene for microRNAs deregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Oligonucleotide primer pairs for thyroid hormone-[beta] receptor (Thrb
) glutathione reductase (Gsr) were designed using a primer design program (Primer Express, Applied Biosystems) and obtained from Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA).