In this study, we proposed that expatriate managers' CCM would be positively associated with TIOC. Cross-culturally motivated individuals actively study cross-cultural information (J.
We also considered the influence of TIOC on HCN employees' OI.
As described above, previous results suggest that expatriate managers' TIOC at least partially mediates the relationship between their CCM and HCN employees' identification with headquarters and subsidiary.
HCN employees evaluated their expatriate managers' CCM and TIOC, and the scores were aggregated to a group mean, reflecting each expatriate manager's CCM and TIOC.
Because there is no scale in the literature for measuring TIOC, we developed one based on Obstfeld's (2005) six-item scale, which measures the extent to which an individual connects disparate others and induces people to share common goals and interests in a social network.
There was a significant correlation between CCM and TIOC at Level 2.
Model 3 showed a significant positive relationship between the expatriate managers' CCM and TIOC (b = .57, p < .01), thus supporting Hypothesis 3.
To ensure the significance of the indirect effect that CCM had on HCN employees' OI through TIOC, we conducted Sobel tests (Preacher & Hayes, 2004).
Our results also show that TIOC is positively associated with HCN employees' OI.
Our results also suggest that TIOC is effective at changing HCN employees' organizational attitudes in a positive way.