TLBWTerm Low Birth Weight
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In ExWAS, the exposure indicators associated with TLBW risk (Table 5, Figure 4) were, by increasing p-value, building density [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4 for the 300-m buffer, cubic root-transformed exposure values] and NDVI (OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9 for the 100-m buffer).
In the DSA analysis, the only exposure that was identified for being associated with TLBW was NDVI in a 100-m buffer, with an OR of low birth weight associated with an IQR change in exposure of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 0.9).
The most statistically significant and consistent associations were for green space estimated as NDVI with birth weight and TLBW (with an increased fetal growth with increasing NDVI exposure).
We found that increasing levels of [PM.sub.2.5] were associated with a decreased birth weight; however, we could not replicate the associations of this air pollutant with TLBW that were reported before in a larger study in Europe overlapping this study population (Pedersen et al.
examined simultaneously the effects of distance to roads, air pollution, heat, noise, and green space on TLBW and found that air pollution ([PM.sub.2.5]) and heat exposures increased the risk for TLBW and together explained about one-third of the association between residential proximity to major roads and TLBW (Dadvand et al.