We observed that the regression coefficients of STLEV and TLEV maintained the same relation for both fixed effects and random effects, which gives robustness to the results.
Dependent variables used in the model: forms of indebtedness Variables Acronyms Measurement Form Short-term indebtedness STLEV Short-term indebtedness/ (liabilities + market Net Equity) Long-term indebtedness LTLEV Long-term indebtedness/ (liabilities + market Net Equity) Total indebtedness TLEV STLEV + LTLEV Variables Source Authors Short-term indebtedness (2); (3) Long-term indebtedness Economdtical (2); (3); (5); (6) Compustat Total indebtedness (1); (2); (3) Note: Authors who used the measure: (1) Kwok and Reeb (2000), (2) Singh and Nejadmalayeri (2004), (3) Mittoo and Zhang (2008), (4) Saito and Hiramoto (2010), (5) De jong et al.
The models for TLEV and SLEV have high explanatory power ([R.
As predicted by hypothesis 4, GROW is positively associated with TLEV and LLEV, though the relationship with SLEV is not statistically significant.
The results presented in Table 5 generally support hypothesis 5, since liquidity (LIQ) is negatively associated with TLEV and SLEV.
Consumers in California currently are buying both TLEVs and LEVs, as well as a Honda ULEV.
The key substantive provision of the NLEV rule provides that auto manufacturers would sell TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs, as certified under the California LEV program, to meet an increasingly more stringent fleet average emissions requirement throughout the 49 states (i.
See the CARB web page for a list of auto manufacturers which are selling TLEVs and LEVs, http:://www.
Tier I and TLEV standards will be eliminated as emission categories.
25 glm NMHC) and TLEV standards will be dropped as emissions categories.