CF is the cash flow to total assets ratio, DIVPOS is a dummy equal to one when the firm pays cash dividends, TLTD
is the long-term debt to total assets ratio, LNTA is the natural log of total assets, ISG is the firm's industry sales growth, and SG is the firm sales growth, both calculated with respect to the previous year.
Whited-Wu (WW) = 0.938407 - 0.091CF - 0.062DIV POS + 0.021 TLTD
index - 0.044LNTA + 0.1021SG 0.035SG, in which CF is the ratio of cash flow to book value of assets, DIVPOS is a dummy variable equal to one if the firm pays dividends, and zero otherwise, SG is own firm real sales growth, ISG is the three-digit industry sales growth, and LNTA is the natural log of total assets.
Playground paint lead distribution (mg/[cm.sup.2]) by municipality Total Johannesburg Ekurhuleni Tshwane sample Number of parks 19 9 21 49 Number of readings 843 325 980 2 416 Minimum TLTD
* Maximum 6.8 8.9 10.4 10.4 Median 0.7 0.7 1.2 0.9 Mean 1.1 1.2 1.8 1.9 Standard deviation 1.2 1.6 1.9 1.6 Percentage of 40% 37% 58% 49% measurements >1 mg/[cm.sup.2] Percentage of parks 87% 86% 79% 83% with chipped paint Percentage of parks 95% 89% 100% 96% with elevated paint lead concentrations Range in proportion 8-89% 8-67% 10-94% 8-94% of elevated paint lead measurements in parks with lead-based paint * Too low to detect.