A notable gut-microbiota-generated metabolite called TMAO
was found as an important causal risk for cardiovascular disease.
"Many Paleo diet proponents claim the diet is beneficial to gut health, but this research suggests that when it comes to the production of TMAO
in the gut, the Paleo diet could be having an adverse impact in terms of heart health," she said.
Biddinger has also shown that the enzyme which produces the pro-atherogenic substance TMAO
in the liver is inhibited by insulin, but that the enzyme is increased in insulin resistance.
Gut bacteria produce TMAO
as a byproduct when they feed on certain nutrients during digestion.
Furthermore, we found that the serum concentration of the several differential metabolites (T4, IDP, 3-CLY, TMAO
, l-valine, some bile acid metabolites, and its derivatives) were substantially altered in the ADR-induced FSGS group, all of which were previously reported to be associated with chronic kidney disease.
The study showed that low-dose treatment with TMAO
reduced heart thickening (cardiac fibrosis) and markers of heart failure in an animal model of hypertension.
makes blood platelets prone to clotting.
EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; FAA, free amino acids; TMAO
, trimethylamine oxide; RW, raw meat; RL, raw liver; SM, steamed meat; BM, boiled meat; SL, steamed liver; FL, fried liver; SLW, steamed liver water; FLW, fried liver water; SLS, the soup prepared by SL and meat; FLS, the soup prepared by FL and meat; PCA, perchoric acid; TMA, trimethylamine; TCA, trichloroacetic acid; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; AMP, adenosine; GMP, guanylic monophosphate; HxR, hypoxanthine ribonucleoside; IMP, inosinic monophosphate; Adr, adrenaline; Hx, hypoxanthine.
In addition, a recent 24-week energy-restricted intervention study with low [0-1 dairy products/day (<600 mg calcium/day)] or high [4-5 dairy products/ day (approximately 1200 mg calcium/day)] dairy intake showed that high dairy consumption increased urinary citrate and creatinine and decreased the urinary excretion of TMAO
and hippurate (64).
1575-1584,2013, Retrieved August 27,2017 "The production of TMAO
from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota.
Trimethylamine is oxidized in the liver to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO
), and TMAO
increases in a dose-dependent manner with egg consumption .
In this review, we aimed to discuss the compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota in relation to CVD, determine the effects of the gut microbiota on CVD from the view of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO
) and immune cells, and evaluate how gut interventions can lead to novel therapeutic targets for CVD.