The pellet obtained was suspended in PBS with 20% [D.sub.2]O and 2 mM TMSP
and transferred into the NMR microtube.
Chemical shifts ([delta]) are given in ppm relative to TMSP: (C[H.sub.3)3]Si(C[D.sub.2)2]C[O.sub.2]Na, sodium 3-trimethylsilyl-propionate-2,2,3,3-[d.sub.4], set at 0 ppm.
where [Metabolite] and [TMSP] are metabolite concentrations in mM of a metabolite and reference, respectively; and, PA refers to peak integration from NMR signal of the particular metabolite M or TMSP. Percent relative change after selenium treatment compared to untreated control cells was calculated by: % Relative Change = ([PA.sub.treated-[PA.sub.untreated] /[PA.sub.untreated) X 100.
Peaks were calibrated and corrected based on a TMSP standard (0 ppm), and were assigned according to literature values (Govindaraju et al.
Spectral intensities were scaled to trimethylsilyl propionic acid sodium salt (TMSP
) and reduced to integrated regions of equal width (0.04) corresponding to d 0.4 d 10.0.
The lyophilisates were reconstituted in 600 [mu]L [D.sub.2]O containing 0.25 mM TMSP (as a chemical shift reference at 0 ppm).
Chemical shifts (ppm) are relative to TMSP ([.sup.1]H, [delta]).
As mentioned before, total NMR spectral area of each extraction was normalized to sample mass and TMSP signal area in order to compare yields between liquid membranes.
The lyophilized extracts were re-suspended with sodium phosphate buffer in D2O (0.1 M) containing TMSP as an internal chemical shift standard.
TMSP has long recognized the importance of getting youth involved in astronomy.
In addition to providing an opportunity to look through scores of telescopes of all shapes and sizes and hear a variety of invited talks, TMSP also features commercial vendors, games, raffles, telescope merit awards, and a flea market.