This work is supported by the Chinese TMSR Strategic Pioneer Science and Technology Project (no.
Brun, "The TMSR as Actinide Burner and Thorium Breeder," Lucotte, 2007.
 TMSR group, The detailed conceptual design of the 2 MW liquid fueled molten salt reactor, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2016.
(2) CAS Innovative Academy in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
Targeted muscle and sensory reinnervation (TMSR) is used to improve the control of upper limb prostheses.
The lab of Olaf Blanke at EPFL, in collaboration with Andrea Serino at the University Hospital of Lausanne and teams of clinicians and researchers in Switzerland and abroad have successfully mapped out these changes in the cortices of three patients with upper-limb amputations who had undergone TMSR and were proficient users of prosthetic limbs developed by Todd Kuiken and his group at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.
Surprisingly, the study showed that motor cortex maps of the amputated limb were similar in terms of extent, strength, and topography to individuals without limb amputation, but they were different from patients with amputations that did not receive TMSR, but were using standard prostheses.
The approach was even able to identify maps of missing (phantom) fingers in the somatosensory cortex of the TMSR patients that were activated through the reinnervated skin regions from the chest or residual limb.
Moreover, when investigating the connections between upper-limb maps in both cortices, the researchers found normal connections in the TMSR patients, which were comparable with healthy controls.
The study also showed that TMSR is still in need of improvement: the connections between the primary sensory and motor cortex with the higher-level embodiment regions in fronto-parietal cortex were as weak in the TMSR patients as in the non-TMSR patients, and differed with respect to healthy subjects.
The scientists conclude that future TMSR prosthetics should implement systematic somatosensory feedback linked to the robotic hand movements, enabling patients to feel the sensory consequences of the movements of their artificial limb.