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TNF-aTumor Necrosis Factor alpha
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Meso scale discovery (MSD) system (MSD, Rockville, MD, USA)[sup][12] was used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines for IL-1[sz], IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-a, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 using a commercial kit (K15054G-2).
Results: The results showed highly significant decrease in urinary TNF-a and caspase 3 enzyme (P values < 0.
Considering the cold chain process, all samples were then taken to the Bio-chemistry Lab at ZaUMS to measure the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and TNF-a.
They further said that factors that stimulate osteoclast formation were regulated by both TNF-a and a downstream mediator, FOXO1.
Interestingly, TNF-a effects have been suggested to be partly mediated by oxidative stress and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction.
sup][7] Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of effector molecules of TNF-a signaling, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of elastin breakdown.