Iglesias et al., "A TRAF2 binding independent region of TNFR2
is responsible for TRAF2 depletion and enhancement of cytotoxicity driven by TNFR1," Oncotarget, vol.
Zaafrane et al., "Association of the Met-196-Arg variation of human tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2
) with paranoid schizophrenia," Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol.
Moreover, in the same experimental model of denervation followed by neuroinflammation, it was shown that TNF was involved in LTP maintenance by binding to both TNFR1 and TNFR2
We have reported that genetic deficiency in either TNF[alpha] or TNFR2
attenuates obesity-related increases in BAL neutrophils after acute [O.sub.3] exposure, but actually exacerbates [O.sub.3]-induced AHR in obese mice (Williams et al.
Salah, "Regulatory T cells with CD62L or TNFR2
expression in young type 1 diabetic patients: relation to inflammation, glycemic control and micro-vascular complications," Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol.
When we looked at the gene expression of cytokine receptors, including IL-6, TNFR1, TNFR2
, IL-1[beta], and IL-10, no changes were detected in the heart (Figure 2), except for the leptin receptor (35-fold increment).
As shown in Figure 4, TNF induces systemic inflammation by binding to two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2
TNF-[alpha] binds the inflammatory TNFR1 and regulatory TNFR2
and in addition to the inflammatory cascade affects cell death, proliferation, and differentiation .
Several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), total homocysteine (tHcy), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2
), and VEGF, have been found to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke .
The fact that deletion of TNF-[alpha] receptor 1 (TNFR1), but not TNFR2
, protected the heart against I/R injury suggested that the detrimental effect of TNF-[alpha] was likely mediated by TNFR1 [115, 116].
The biological activity of TNF-[alpha] is mediated by two membrane receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2
that have different effects (32).
Etanercept is a chimeric fusion protein of TNFR2
and IgG1 Fc.