All benthic diatom strains were isolated from an abalone nursery tank at TNFRI and were monocultured using the methods of Kawamura et al.
The postlarvae were reared at TNFRI and fed the 4 benthic diatom strains over a 7-day period.
Thus we examined annual changes in the position of southern limit of the coastal branch based on water temperature data (TNFRI (1)).
(1) TNFRI (Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute).
TNFRI are activated via both soluble and membrane-bound (mTNF[alpha]) forms of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]), whereas TNFRII are mainly activated by mTNF[alpha] .
The TNFRI gene is located on chromosome 12p13 consisting of 10 exons [17,18] and contains a housekeeping promoter with multiple transcription start sites, a high GC content, and missing consensus TATA and CAAT box motifs .
To determine the role of TNF-[alpha] in in vivo homing ability of SLE BMSCs, passage 4 SLE BMSCs at a density of 5 x [10.sup.6] cells/mL in 0.2 mL PBS were pretreated with recombinant human TNF-[alpha] (50 [micro]g/L, 100 [micro]g/L) in the presence or absence of specific neutralizing antibodies to TNFRI and TNFII for 24 hours, and then cells were labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) (Takara, China) according to the manufacturer's protocol and infused in MRL/lpr mice at 16 weeks of age intravenously.
TNF-[alpha] Decreased Migration and In Vivo Homing Capacity of SLE BMSCs via TNFRI. TNFRI and TNFRII largely play discrete roles in mediating functions of TNF-[alpha].
All samples were immediately transferred to TNFRI
and frozen at -80[degrees]C after processing for stable isotope analyses.
PBMCs from healthy individuals were prepared and stained with CD14 and TNFRI
or TNFRII (R&D Systems).
Indeed, TNF can induce both cell proliferation and death, depending on which receptor it binds to (TNFRI
, the proapoptotic receptor; or TNFRII, the prosurvival receptor) [42, 43].
The cyclic peptide WP9QY was designed to mimic the most critical TNF-[alpha] recognition loop on TNFRI
, and it prevents the interactions of TNF-[alpha] with TNF receptors.