In short, the results of this experiment are similar to findings of behavioral studies which investigated the hypothesis of prior entry and are coherent with the TOJ task paradigm (Hikosaka et al.
Participants performed a TOJ task of which letter was presented first, giving a relative estimate of the advantage of information presented inside in relation to information presented outside of the frame, or the perceptual facilitation, being similar to studies that compared situations where the target was presented inside a peripheral cue (valid trials) and outside this cue (invalid trials).
We manipulated the interval of presentation of the frame to verify the temporal dynamics of attention when a TOJ task was used.
TOJ provides us with two fundamental measures of the possible effects of attention: (i) the time interval between stimuli for which the observer is able to differentiate their order, and (ii) the precision with which the task can be performed.
This emphasizes underlining the sensitivity of the TOJ to attentional factors (Shore et al.
The TOJ is also very sensitive to attentional dysfunction subsequent to brain damage (Rorden, Mattingley, Karnath, & Driver, 1997).
The idea behind TOJ manipulation is that one stimulus of the pair could receive some kind of perceptual priority that would alter the time it takes to reach awareness.
Recently, the role of attention in temporal order perception has been investigated by means of the simultaneous measures of TOJ and event-related potential (ERP) recordings in the human visual cortex (McDonald, Teder-Salejarvi, Russo, & Hillyard, 2005).
The archetype of striking results obtained by employing TOJ and complication experiments (such as those leading to the FLE) is found in the seminal work carried out by Benjamin Libet and collaborators (Libet, 2002, 2004; Libet, Wright, Feinstein, & Pearl, 1979).
The TOJ threshold is a measure for the accuracy to determine the stimulus onset asynchrony of a stimulus pair, or the ability to discriminate between two asynchronous stimulus pairs.
They reasoned that Exner (1875) found differences between unimodal and bimodal stimuli because he used the SAS and TOJ method, respectively.