6% of human serum samples contained neutralizing antibodies against SFSV (5) (the exact region of Kosovo was not mentioned), and in 2011, <1% of human serum samples collected in the Peje region contained TOSV
neutralizing antibodies (6).
Infections by TOSV
and Leishmania represent an important public health problem in the countries where these pathogens circulate.
The first sample yielded negative results, but the follow-up sample showed IgM and IgG against TOSV
and SFNV (both belonging to SFNV serocomplex).
Of 249 pools processed, 8 strains of phleboviruses were isolated: 2 TOSV
, 3 Punique virus, and 3 other phleboviruses currently being characterized.
CSF and acute-phase serum samples were also tested for IgG and/or IgM against TOSV
(EIA Enzywell Toscana virus IgG/IgM, Diesse, Siena, Italy), West Nile virus (ELISA IgG and IgM-capture ELISA; Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA, USA), and LCMV by indirect fluorescent assay (IFA) with further confirmation by Western blot (2).
Presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM against TOSV
was investigated by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA Enzywell Toscana virus IgG and IgM; DIESSE Diagnostica Senese S.
We report TOSV
infection of an American male physician, 65 years of age, who traveled to Sicily for 3 weeks and returned to the United States in October 2009.
Results of immunoluorescent assays for TOSV
and SFNV were positive with IgM titers of 1,280 and 160, respectively (cut-off 20) and IgG titers of 5,120 and 640, respectively (cut-off 20).
is widespread in the Mediterranean Basin, and evidence of human infection has been found in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Cyprus, and Turkey.
As a result of these virologic and serologic surveys, we detected 7 cases of TOSV
In Spain, TOSV
has been isolated from phlebotomine flies, but species identification was not performed (3).
Only 1 TOSV
-positive pool was observed with primers specific to TOSV
polymerase and N genes, respectively.