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The peak at 1029 [cm.sup.-1] for both hardwood species seems to be much higher for TNFC in following the trend TNFC > TOWP > bleached > raw material in RO and YP meaning
The XRD patterns of the raw material, oxidized samples by TEMPO (TOWP), and nano-fibrillated cellulose (TNFC) from red oak and yellow poplar are presented in Figures 2(a) and 2(b), respectively.
The large amount of char residue form TEMPO-oxidized NFCs is due to the high sodium ion which will hold carbonate, so the high sodium content after neutralization results in a high ash (char) content in of TEMPO treated pulps (TOWP).
Figures 4(c) and 4(d) represent SEM images of TEMPO-oxidized fibers (TOWP) of RO and YP, respectively.
NFC: Nanofibrillated cellulose TNFC: TEMPO nanofibrillated cellulose TEMPO: 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical XRD: X-ray diffraction RO: Red oak YP: Yellow poplar TOWP: TEMPO-oxidized (bleached) wood pulp TEM: Transmission electron microscopy SEM: Scanning electron microscopy DP: Degree of polymerization.
Caption: FIGURE 1: (a) FTIR spectra of red oak: (I) raw material, (II) bleached, (III) tempo-oxidized wood pulp (TOWP), and (IV) TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TNFC).
Caption: FIGURE 4: FE-SEM micrographs of the bleached RO (a) and YP (b); TEMPO-oxidized wood pulp (TOWP) of RO (c) and YP (d); TEMPO nanofibrillated cellulose (TNFC) of RO (e) and YP (f) samples after a solvent exchange (E/tert-B-FD treatment) followed by freeze drying.