A considerable number of studies have established TPAI reliability: Capie, Tobin, Ellett & Johnson (1980); Capie, Ellett & Johnson (1981); Capie & Ellett (1982a); among others.
For an overview of various TPAI validation processes and content analysis correlations with pupil's perceptions of the learning environment, with pupil engagement, and especially with pupil achievement, see Capie & Ellett (1982b).
Dickson & Wiersma (1984) reported separate factor analyses with promax oblique rotation of the TPAI and of the Classroom Observation Keyed for Effectiveness Research (COKER).
Each teacher behavior evaluated on the TPAI receives a score ranging from one to six, with one being unsatisfactory, two being below standard, three being at standard, four being above standard, five being well above standard, and six being superior.
Additionally, during their last observation of each student teacher, the university supervisors used the TPAI to evaluate the student's teaching performance.
To assess how student teachers with different TPAI (exit evaluations) scores described their organizational life style, high and low groups were formed from the TPAI.