Water quality of the investigated aquaculture pond was specified monthly from June to November 2017 by measuring its common physicochemical parameters including pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, total organic matter (TOM), extractable organic matter (EOM), total of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs
), sulfide, sulfate, ammonia as N, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate.
Experimental design and setup: The experiment was conducted as a 4x2 two factor factorial with four replicates: the first factor being TPHs
content in soil (four levels: 912, 75 560, 91 695 and 118 879 mg [kg.sup.-1]), and the second one the plant type (two levels).
Besides, the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH
) was referred to HJ/T 350-2007, China.
At 25[degrees]C or 37[degrees]C, the values of [L.sup.*], [a.sup.*] ,or [a.sup.*]/[b.sup.*] in the TPHS
were decreased with the storage time prolonged.
In this study, a soil from the Ecuadorian Amazon region, La Joya de los Sachas County, Francisco de Orellana province, was collected to investigate TPHs
remediation using vZI.
Figure 2 shows the concentration of TPHs
, Pb, As, and Cd against standards MPL.
According to TPHS
, 15% of the pregnant women were smoking in 2003 and it decreased to 11.4% in 2008 (7).
Although this result is better than the 30.1% detected in the TPHS
2013 report, it is still far behind the desired levels.
The total PAH level in the CEWAF 2-g/L stock solution (1,429 [micro]g/L) was 3 times that of the 2-g/L WAF stock solution (452 [micro]g/L), whereas the TPH
level (62 mg/L) in the CEWAF solution was 25 times greater than the WAF stock solution (2.5 mg/L; Table 3).
(2005) who reported the phytoremediation alone removed approximately 55% of the TPHs
from the oil-contaminated soil over 8-months experiment and Cai et al.
(2012) Phytoremediation in mangrove sediments impacted by persistent total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs
) using Avicennia schaueriana.