TPPVTrans Pars Plana Vitrectomy
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The <shortened intervals of repeated respiratory infection> subcategory was extracted from the code "NPPV causes respiratory infection (bronchitis or pneumonia) more often than TPPV, because NPPV pushes sputum into the back of the trachea, and intervals of repeated respiratory infection were getting shorter around the time of approaching death."
<The patient's fate depended on the family caregiver's ability> was extracted from the code "He wished to live longer, but he can't use 24-hour NPPV or TPPV because he had no family caregivers."
However, identification and recruitment of dying patients with ALS who are receiving NPPV are substantial challenges, because some die unexpectedly, some change their mind and undergo tracheostomy and/or TPPV, and others may decline to participate in such a study.