The established relationships between achievement goals and social goals suggest that achievement goal theory might be a viable approach to the study of student personal and social responsibility behaviors as conceptualized in TPSR.
In summary, the present study applies the 2x2 achievement goal model to student personal and social responsibility behaviors within the framework of TPSR in high school physical education settings.
The present study was designed to examine whether the 2x2 achievement goal model would represent a viable theoretical perspective to understand student personal and social responsibility behaviors as conceptualized in the model of teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR; Hellison, 2003, 2011) in the context of Turkish high school physical education.
In conclusion, this study represents the first attempt to apply the 2x2 achievement goal model to study Turkish high school students' personal and social responsibility behaviors as conceptualized in TPSR in a physical education setting.
Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR; 1985, 1995, & 2003) was designed to help youths at-risk to experience success and therefore to promote the development of their personal and social skills and social responsibility in both sports and life in general.
The participants of the intervention group were asked the following questions: How would you assess your participation in the TPSR program?; Do you believe that your behavior has improved and that you have achieved some of the aims of the TPSR program?
Goals of the program: In this implementation of the TPSR model, the students learned responsibility progressively, moving through the following levels.
Had the objective that the classroom teachers backed implementation of the TPSR conducted in the Physical Education class.
1) Evaluation of the program, all the teachers interviewed positively evaluated the TPSR as a method for at-risk adolescents to learn behaviors of responsibility, highlighting the utility of the program's method.
"I have full faith in what can be achieved with the methodology that has been used in the TPSR program ..." (Interview with Javier, 7/6/2007 p.1, 16-19).
With respect to the first question that this research aimed to tackle, the appraisal of the teachers seems to confirm that the responsibility behavior of the participants improved during the course of the implementation of the TPSR. The teachers attributed the improvements of the youngsters in the intervention group to the program, and in particular evaluated their own participation in the the TPSR, though indirect, as a positive experience that has helped them to improve as teachers.
The results of our intervention indicate that the TPSR program, when applied to adolescents during the course of a school year, can produce an improvement of self-efficacy for enlisting social resources and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning.