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TRAF2TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2
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Nonspecific binding was blocked with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.1% Tween 20 (PBST) and 5% nonfat milk (dissolved with PBS) for 1 h, and the membranes were incubated overnight at 4[degrees]C with the following primary antibodies and dilutions: [beta]-actin (1: 1000) LC3 (1: 1000), Beclin 1 (1: 500), Bcl-2 (1: 1000), Bax (1:500), caspase-3 (1:500), JNK (1:1000), phospho-JNK (1: 500), and TRAF2 (1: 1000).
AICD: Amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain APP: Amyloid precursor protein BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor CHOP: CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein C/N: Carbon to nitrogen ERK: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase IDE: Insulin-degrading enzyme iNOS: Inducible NO synthase IRE1[alpha]: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1[alpha] JNK: c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase MPTP: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MP[P.sup.+]: 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium NeuN: Neuronal nuclei NF-[kappa]B: Nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells NGF: Nerve growth factor PD: Parkinson's disease proNGF: NGF precursor RNS: Reactive nitrogen species TRAF2: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 v/v: Volume/volume.
Alitongbieke et al., "Celastrol-induced Nur77 interaction with TRAF2 alleviates inflammation by promoting mitochondrial ubiquitination and autophagy," Molecular Cell, vol.
Abbreviations miRNA: MicroRNA UTR: Untranslated region FLS: Fibroblast-like synoviocyte RA: Rheumatoid arthritis RF: Rheumatoid factor MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging DMARD: Disease-modifying anti-RA drugs TNF: Tumor necrosis factor LPS: Lipopolysaccharide IL: Interleukin AA: Adjuvant arthritis MMP: Metalloproteinase NF-[kappa]B: Nuclear factor-kappa B TAB: TGF-[beta]-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein IKK: Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase TRAF2: TNF receptor associated factor 2 TNFAIP-3 : Tumor necrosis factor a-induced protein 3 5-azaC: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine SCID mice: Severe combined immunodecifient mice.
This interaction allows for the oligomerization of MAVS and the recruitment of regulatory subunits TRAF2, TRAF5, TRAF6, and NEMO.
(76) One of these ER receptors, IRE1a, accounts for the pro-inflammatory potential of the UPR by recruiting TRAF2 to the ER membrane and thus the activation of NF-[kappa]B and the production of IL-6.
Second, during ER stress, TRAF2 dissociates from the complex of TRAF2/procaspase-12 located in the ER membrane; the process activates caspase-12 and recruits the IRE1/JNK/TRAF2 complex that modulates ASK1 that in turn phosphorylates JNK and induces cell apoptosis [50].
Kyriakis, "Direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1 by the Ste20p homologue GCK and the adapter protein TRAF2," Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.
Particularly in the retina, IRE1/TNF receptor-associated factor-2 (TRAF2)/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1)/c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and PERK/eIF2[alpha]/ATF4/CHOP can elicit several AMD-related pathways via the induction of VEGF, CHOP, caspase 4, and NF-[kappa]B [87].
Specifically, dihydromyricetin dephosphorylates and inhibits the degradation of I[kappa]B[alpha], inactivates p65 nuclear translocation and downregulates the TNF-[alpha]-induced expression of TRAF2 and RIP1.
Also, IL-27 reduced the expression of proinflammatory or proosteoclastogenic genes TNF, IL-17a, and TRAF2 in differentiating osteoclasts on days 2, 5, and 7 (Figure 2(b)).
These protection effects of herbal extracts are acting through enhancing FBX07 and decreasing TRAF2 expression, which is probably mediated by GATA2 induction.