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TRAF3TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3
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In MyD88-independent pathway TRIF and TRAM adaptor proteins are involved in the activation of TRAF3 and, downstream, in the induction of TBK1 and IKK[epsilon], needed for the activation of the transcription factor IRF3.
Some act as positive regulators such as serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) that interacts with TBK1 and IRF3 [80], munc18-1interacting protein 3 (Mint3) that stimulates the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 [81], Src-associated substrate in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) that may balance NF-[kappa]B p65 and c-Rel activation [82], and finally S100A9 that acts during the early stages of TLR3 activation by easing the maturation of TLR3-containing early endosomes into late endosomes [83].
In line with previous findings discussed above showing that NOD1/RIP2-mediated TRAF3 activation triggers type I IFN responses rather than NF-[kappa]B-related responses, (10) Cdx2 expression induced by exposure to H.
There are several potential benefits of the use of innovative epigenetic biomarkers such as DNA methylation of specific genes (i.e., TRAF3 or PPM1A methylation patterns as explained in this review) or miRNAs (i.e., miR-132, miR-140-3p, and miR-210 as predictors of cardiovascular death).
In the TLR pathway, there were 8 key genes with a significant difference in expression (P < 0.05): RAC1, TRAF3, MAPK3, IFNAR1, TICAM1, IL6, MAPK11, and IFNA1 (Table 5).
The enzyme, called TRAF3, lives on to control a molecular network that is implicated in a variety of immune system-related diseases if left to its own devices.
On the other hand, the transcription factor IRF-7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) can bind to the MyD88/IRAK1/IRAK4 complex, and its activation is dependent upon TLR7/TLR8 and TLR9, requiring the TRAF3 (TNF receptor-associated factor 3) protein which joins IRAKI and IKKa kinases to produce interferon alpha (IFN-[alpha]) (7).
Reed, "Lymphocyte-specific TRAF3 transgenic mice have enhanced humoral responses and develop plasmacytosis, autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer," Blood, vol.
Characterization of LMP-1's association with TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3. J Virol 1997;71:4649-56.
IRF3 can be phosphorylated and nuclear translocated by IKK, TBK1, and IKKi (IKK[epsilon]) that can be activated by TRIF requiring TRAF3 (Figure 1) [32, 33].
Brink, "TRAF2 and TRAF3 signal adapters act cooperatively to control the maturation and survival signals delivered to B cells by the BAFF receptor," Immunity, vol.