Murphy offers an important reminder of the contribution of many NGOs to the diffusion of neoliberal norms and practices, but he does so by refusing to draw any distinction between NGOs and TSMOs or what he calls "social movement"--style organizations.
One result is the tendency to assume that the less formal, socially embedded aspects of movements are local or national in character, and that only the more formally structured, institutionally oriented NGOs or TSMOs are active in global politics.
34) It is only through TSMOs in transnational advocacy networks that movements are likely to become cross-border in form and participants in processes of transnational contention.
There is a strong tendency to depict all movements and TSMOs as pursuing a settled, progressive global agenda, one closely linked for utopian transformationalists to claims of the new social-movement type.
It is clear that the focus of pragmatists on TSMOs both feeds off and reinforces an emphasis on the instrumental dimension of movement activism.
Some pragmatists have focused explicitly on "noninstitutional efforts to change social beliefs, values or practices," hinting that the relationship between TSMOs and transnational social movements must be significant on this point and that the "deep politics of shaping individual thinking and action .
48) Among pragmatists, this escapes close study, but is surely to be considered a good thing, reflecting "frame alignment" among TSMOs and INGO elites.
57) In sum, there seems to be a strong likelihood that INGOs and TSMOs will become increasingly integrated into elite structures of power over time, detached from the control of their memberships and from potentially broader movement constituencies.
We suggest below that the democratic construction of such networks might militate against oligarchic tendencies in TSMOs.
As we have seen, the concepts of social movement and TSMOs deployed in the existing literature are frequently impressionistic and ungrounded in social-movement theory.
What is clear is that the study of transnational social movements and TSMOs needs to pay much closer attention than it has thus far to the networks linking together activists in different geographical locations and in different kinds of groups.
However, it offers a necessary analytic corrective to the pragmatist focus on TSMOs and their instrumental strategies and the pessimistic structuralist dismissal of such strategies.