aureus strains produce a variety of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1
) and exfoliative toxins (ETs).
aureus or the positive testing of TSST-1
polymerase antigen and the development of TSS.
(10) The staphylococcal enterotoxin F (SEF) lacks emetic activity, but it is associated with TSST-1
. (11) Other studies have exhibited that staphylococcal phage Q3 carries sea (in strain Mu50), sep (strain N315), or in case of sea-sek-seq (strain MW2) genes.
Quentin et al., "Staphylococcal exanthematous disease in a newborn due to a virulent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain containing the TSST-1
gene in Europe: an alert for neonatologists," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
The primers specific to sea, seb, sec, sed and tsst-1
genes were designed and multiple alignments were carried out.
ST5 was a pandemic HA-MRSA clone disseminated internationally in Asia.[sup] It was noteworthy that the toxin gene tst encoding TSST-1
was found in 3 isolates and all the 3 isolates were belonging to ST5.
Some strains are even capable of producing one or more toxins, which can be generally classified into two groups, the active agents in membranes, comprising toxins alpha, beta, delta, gamma and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl, LukE-lukD genes), designated as PVL, and the toxins with superatingen activity (SAgs), including the family of pyrogenic toxins (PTs), which are the staphylococcal-entero-toxins (SEs), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1
) and the family of exfoliative toxins (ETs) (Bohach, Fast, Nelson, & Schlievert, 1990).
Some strains produce one or more exoproteins, including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1
), exfoliative toxins (ET) and leukocidins (4).
aureus isolates also produce one or more additional exoproteins, such as toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1
), staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), exfoliative toxins (ETs), and leukocidins.
The immunological stimulant TSST-1
used in this study leads to nonspecific binding of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) with T cell receptors, resulting in polyclonal T cell activation, stimulation of mononuclear cells, and increased cytokine production [48, 49].