In sum, over the past decade, the effects of TSTV channels such as Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya on Arab public opinion have received much attention, but scant attention has been paid to the effects of exposure to DSTV channels that have increasingly challenged transnational TV stations for audiences in different domestic markets.
Though the size and magnitude of the relationship may vary, the overall pattern across these studies shows a significant link between exposure to TSTV and public opinion about the United States.
H4: The perceived media credibility gap will mediate the relationships between exposure to TSTV and DSTV and opinions of the United States.
Two indicators were entered for the two trusted TSTV channels Al-Arabiya (2.1%) and Al-Jazeera (2.0%).
The last independent variable entered into the model was an indicator of the perceived credibility gap between DSTV and TSTV. This variable was created by subtracting the perceived credibility of DSTV news, measured on a 4-point scale (M = 2.7, SD = 0.91), from the perceived credibility of TSTV news, measured on the same scale (M = 2.3, SD = 0.95).
This analysis reveals that TSTV news exposure influences the perceived credibility gap between transnational and domestic TV news (b = .23, p < .001) in favor of TSTV news, as hypothesized in H1.
In this equation, TSTV news exposure has a negative direct effect (H3) on negative evaluations of the United States (b = -.09, p < .01) as well as a total indirect effect through the perceived credibility gap (b = -.02, p < .01).
Results show the perceived credibility news gap partially mediates the relationships between transnational TV and domestic TV news exposure and anti-American sentiment, with audiences who perceive TSTV as more credible expressing less negative sentiment toward the United States (b = -.09, p < .001).
Addressing journalists in Abuja, Zidah said TSTV which is an indigenous brand is currently transmitting over 50 channels for free, and currently reviewing and optimizing the channels as well as creating a distribution network for easy accessibility of their product.
'TSTV has not forgotten her promises to Nigerian, neither have we abandoned them.