The concentrations of lactic acid and TVFA
in ileum were improved (p<0.01) in pigs supplemented with diets containing MOA compared to CTR (Table 4).
The ratio of TVFA
to methane showed that nitrate treated hays recorded higher TVFA
per unit of methane when compared with urea treated hays (p =0.07) however, there was no linear or quadratic response with increasing inclusion levels.
(2010) Table 2: Rumen fluid profile (mean [+ or -] SE) of buffaloes suffering from rumen impaction (n=15) Parameters Rumen Reference impaction values pH 7.06[+ or -]0.28 7 MBRT (min) 44.00[+ or -]1.30 (*) 3-6 TVFA
(mEq/L) 63.80[+ or -]1.7 60-120 N[H.sub.3]-N (mg%) 31.60[+ or -]1.54 (*) 6-25 Na (mmol-[L.sup.-1]) 105.86[+ or -]5.15 - Cl (mmol-[L.sup.-1]) 19.61[+ or -]1.02 <30 (*) Mean value higher than reference range Reference ranges: taken from Garry (2002).
Sheep had higher (P<0.05) overall ruminal TVFA
's than goats (11.18 vs.7.46 m.
The concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA
) were markedly higher (P less than 0.05) (except butyrate concentration for portal vein and artery), while the ratio of acetate to propionate lower (P less than 0.01) in the portal, hepatic vein and artery in goats fed LF diets as compared with HF diets.
The differences in TVFA
table 4 due to the applied treatments were significant in the fresh cheese and insignificant in mature cheese, but treatment (I) cheese had the highest corresponding values of 6.4 and 18.06 ml 0.1N NaOH/100g fresh and mature cheese respectively.
Data of rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA
, s) and ammonia-nitrogen are presented in Table 6.
Total volatile fatty acids (TVFA
) and proportion of propionic acid (C3) were differed among treatments and ranged from 88.6 to 100.8 mmol/l and 23.4 to 27.7 mmol/l, respectively.
The production levels of lactic acids and TVFA
are a reflection of unsuitable fermentation or secondary fermentation of lactic acids to butyric acid and degradation of amino acids to ammonia and acetic acid.
Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA
) concentrations were affected by age (p<0.001) but not by diet and decreased at 56 days of age compared with 35 days of age.
Percentage of ruminal butyric acid, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA
) concentration, acetate to propionate ratio, and BCP concentration were the highest in OH, intermediate in AH and the lowest in WS (p<0.05; Figure
Oskoueian et al  found that the addition of the flavonoids naringin and quercetin to ruminate diets could suppress methane production without influencing rumen microbial fermentation, while the use of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol decreased the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA
) concentration of rumen microbes cultured in vitro.