Usually, the use of TZDs
is associated with weight gain due to water and fluid retention.
Options include sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is), GLP-1RAs, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), thiazolidinediones (TZDs
), sulfonylureas, and basal insulin.
There were eight studies in Asians and 35 studies in Caucasians with AGI treatment and 12 studies in Asians and 72 studies in Caucasians with TZD
Media were changed in every 48 hours with respective concentrations of TZD
, LA, and RA in appropriate dishes till the final day of induction.
The thiazolidinediones (TZDs
) are synthetic activators of PPAR[gamma] that induce insulin sensitization as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Abbreviations ADN: Adiponectin ADNR: Adiponectin receptor ALT: Alanine aminotransferase AMPK: 5-AMP-activated protein kinase AUC: Area under the curve HOMA-IR: The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance IKK: Inhibitory-[kappa]B kinase pIKK: Phosphorylated inhibitory-[kappa]B kinase protein NF: Nuclear factor pNF: Phosphorylated nuclear factor IRS: Insulin receptor substrate tIRS: Total insulin receptor substrate LETO: Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka NEFA: Nonesterified fatty acids OGTT: Oral glucose tolerance test OLETF: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty PPAR: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor TZD
: Thiazolidinedione WAT: White adipose tissue.
Synthetic PPAR[gamma] agonists in Figure 17 contain Benzoxazolyl (37) and Benzisoxazolyl (38) moieties as lipophilic tail of TZD
were able to reduce the glucose and lipid levels.
Hence, diabetes medicaments including pioglitazone and rosiglitazone belonging to the TZD
class of PPAR-[gamma] agonists are observed to be potent inducers of Acrp30 expression [92-95].
Prentice and colleagues defined treatment as initiating either SU or TZD
as a second hypoglycemic agent after experience with metformin, noting that most patients who initiated one or the other remained on it 2 years later (Prentice et al.
The objectives of the current post-hoc analysis were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TZD
vs LZD for the treatment of ABSSSI in patients of Latino origin enrolled into the Phase 3 ESTABLISH studies.
The study found that patients who started treatment with a sulfonylurea (SFU), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, and a thiazolidinedione (TZD
) were significantly more likely to add an oral agent, a second oral agent or insulin than patients who started on metformin.
A cohort study involving diabetic patients without prior stroke showed that individuals who had used rosiglitazones, a type of thiazolidinedione (TZD
), for 10 years presented an increased risk of ischemic stroke and heart failure (30).