As far as the first flight is concerned, its execution time has decreased and one of the reasons is that the subjects have approached a correct position of the take-off angles
of the trampoline after the round off.In the literature, flight times (from take-off from the trampoline to table contact) are reported between 0.12 - 0.22 seconds (Cuk, I., Karacsony, I., 2004).
(1992), who found track sprinters had a hip extension take-off angle
of approximately 144[degrees].
Table 2: Atomic percentages of F, 0, and C atoms of copolymers with different take-off angle
Element (%) 30[degrees] 60[degrees] 90[degrees] Theoretical C 72.6 73.2 74.4 73.0 0 19.2 20.5 19.5 24.4 F 8.2 6.3 6.1 2.6 TGA
To decide whether observed residua depend or not depend on distance we correlated calculated residua values with distance (epicentral distances, hypocentral distances and take-off angles
, which were determined for homogeneous medium model, were considered).
The most significant effect of these studies was the demonstration that the accuracy of analysis could be improved significantly by using spectrometers at a higher take-off angle
than Castaing's original instruments, and working at lower operating voltages.
To follow the changes at the surfaces and interfaces, they also took spectra at a 15 deg take-off angle
Linthorne NP, Guzman MS, Bridgett LA, 2005, Optimum take-off angle
in the long jump, Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7):703-712
The calculated uncertainties due to the video sampling rate were about 0.1 m/s for take-off velocity, 1.0[degrees] for take-off angle
, 0.01 m for touchdown height, 0.02 m for take-off height, 2.8[degrees] for leg angle at touchdown, 1.3[degrees] for knee angle at touchdown, 0.6[degrees] for pole angle, 0.07 m for (normalized) energy at touchdown, 0.03 m for energy at take-off, 0.02 m for energy at maximum pole bend, and 0.02 m for energy at the peak of the vault.
- from the perspective of the angles that are specific fro this track and field event (the contact angle, the touch-down and the take-off angle
) they presented the following values (table 1, figure 3):
Analyzing the values of the contact, hit and take-off angles
(tables 3 and graphic 4) we can observe the following aspects: the contact angle has 65,20 (Oprea), 71,70 (Anghel), respectively 66,90 (Daianu); referring to the hit angle, the values of the three athletes have an ascendant trajectory starting with Oprea and finishing with Daianu; in the take-off angle
case, as the contact angle, Anghel has the highest value followed by Daianu and Oprea.
--the visualization of the color markers and the establishment of the kinematic components wanted to be analyzed: the height and trajectory of the point that represents the position of the bogy mass center established in the standing position; the trajectory of the ankle, knee, hip and shoulder joints; the angle from the knee and hip joints, as well as the contact, hit and take-off angle
; the distance between the projection of the body mass center on the ground and the contact point of the hit leg in the hit phase moment (fig.4);
AERIAL Athletes perform various ski flips and twists off snow-packed jumps as high as four metres, with take-off angles
as steep as 70 degrees.