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TERRESTerritorial Residents
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Red-backed salamanders provide an ideal system with which to explore predator selectivity because territorial residents are known to forage within discrete territories surrounding cover objects, while nonterritorial floaters (Mathis, 1991) may forage over wider areas.
TABLE 1.--Number of ants obtained from litter of Plethodon cinereus territories and from the stomachs of territorial residents. Numbers following species names indicate number of salamanders that consumed that ant species.
Aleinikoff observes that perfecting the constitutional status of territorial residents "might well have become fertile ground for the Warren Court's citizenship project"; he speculates that the failure to plough may have owed to a "preoccup[ation] with the race question and the expansion of rights against the states." Pp.
We chose 15 min for the interactions because Gabor and Jaeger (1995) found that territorial residents of P.
In 1848 Douglas showed no clear and consistent pattern in his thinking on the territories, but during congressional fights over establishing a territorial government for Oregon, he came to believe that the Missouri Compromise was dead as an operative principle for the territories and that the best policy was to leave control over domestic institutions to territorial residents. These debates taught Douglas that new ways of thinking had to be developed, and the result was a "transition to popular sovereignty"; after 1850, Douglas increasingly honed his concept of popular sovereignty into a constitutional principle.
The concept of the Northwest Ordinance as a constitution for the territories, defining the individual and collective rights of territorial residents as well as the powers of Congress, had thus been abandoned.
First, by observing how the fighting behavior of territorial residents varies with fighting ability, ecological circumstances, and spatial position, one can develop a mathematical description of the rules describing spatial variation in aggressive pressure.
Mean ranges for the six transients that occupied the study area as frequently as territorial residents were 35.3 [km.sup.2] (SE = 4.8) and 45.4 [km.sup.2] (SE = 5.7) for the 75% and 85% estimates.
The feeding territory aspect is supported by studies showing that territories are maintained during the non-courtship summer (Mathis 1989), that territorial residents increase aggressive defense with increasing tenure of ownership when only prey (not mates) are available (Nunes and Jaeger 1989), and that resident-intruder aggressive or submissive interactions vary based on both quantity (Nunes 1988) and quality of prey (soft vs.