The thermoneutral zone
for layer hens to express their production potential in the thermal environment is when the temperature is between 21 and 28 AdegC (Castilho et al., 2015) and the air relative humidity is between 50 and 70% (Tinoco, 2001).
The environment selected by animals influences their ability to maintain thermal homeostasis when temperatures are outside of their thermoneutral zone
, and animals exhibit a wide range of behavioral responses to balance energy gains and losses (Moen 1968).
Recent research has shown that having access to a warming plate (Hillebrand, Rijke, de Brakkee, Kas, & Adan, 2005), or raising AT to the thermoneutral zone
(Gutierrez et al., 2006) or above it (Morrow et al., 1997) prevented the development of ABA in rats, and reversed ABA once running had become excessive and the rats had already lost a considerable percentage (20%) of initial body weight (Cerrato, Carrera, Vazquez, Echevarria, & Gutierrez, 2011; Gutierrez, Cerrato, Carrera, & Vazquez, 2008; Gutierrez et al., 2009).
Horned larks have a thermoneutral zone
that extends to 35[degrees]C, although they reside in areas regularly above this zone (Fig.
Researchers have hypothesized that humans have a thermoneutral zone
, above which the body vasodilates and sweats and below which the body vasoconstricts and shivers.
"But in menopausal women, we think their tolerance for small increases in core body temperature, above what we call their thermoneutral zone
, is greatly reduced," says Freedman.
Warmblooded animals -- referred to as homeotherms -- produce best when their surroundings are in a temperature range called the thermoneutral zone
. In this zone, animals need to make no metabolic or behavioral adjustments to maintain ideal core body temperatures.
According to scientists, the optimum temperature range - known as the thermoneutral zone
- is about 18C for people who live in temperate climates such as ours and wear normal Western clothes.
To avoid heat stress, the thermoregulatory mechanisms in poultry are normally stimulated above the thermoneutral zone
of 24AdegC (Celik et al., 2004; Chand et al., 2017).
The present study was planned to study the performance and potential profitability of four commercial broiler strains in two different temperature zones i.e., thermoneutral zone
(TN) and high ambient temperature zone (HAT) group.
The furnaces were turned on when [T.sub.db] trespassed the lower limit of the thermoneutral zone
established by Abreu & Abreu (2011).
Ideally, poultry should be kept within its thermoneutral zone
, with minimum energy expenditure and effort of thermoregulatory mechanisms, so that the bird can express its maximum genetic potential (AZAD et al., 2010).