(4,5) From this perspective, therapies that have a weight-neutral or weight-reducing effect (metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors) are preferred over those that promote weight gain (sulfonylureas, insulin, thiazolidinediones
Wahl, "Chemotherapy and chemoprevention by thiazolidinediones
," BioMed Research International, vol.
As a consequence of the improvement in insulin sensitivity, PPAR[gamma] activation by thiazolidinediones
decreases glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and lowers the glucose and insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes .
have many adverse effects, including the risk of cardiovascular adverse events, bone fractures, bladder cancer, and hepatotoxicity.
While 2,198 patients (24.5 percent) prescribed metformin required a second oral medication, 37.1 percent of patients prescribed a sulfonylurea, 39.6 percent prescribed a thiazolidinedione
and 36.2 percent prescribed a DPP-4 inhibitor did.
(TZD): Troglitazone, one out of the three TZD, has been withdrawn worldwide because of its high hepato-toxicity (Shenfield 2001).
could activate AMPK in adipocytes, a pathway that increases fat oxidation and glucose transport .
Cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones
: a review of the literature.
The effects of thiazolidinediones
on triglycerides have been somewhat more impressive.
contribute to adiposity and cardiovascular disease by encouraging the division and differentiation of fat cells.
(Pioglitazone), also known as insulin sensitizers, enhances the action of insulin mainly by promoting glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis.
The newly found mitochondrial protein complex is referred to as the mitochondrial Target of Thiazolidinediones
. It acts as a molecular 'sensor switch' connecting mitochondrial metabolism to important cellular activities, such as carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, that are out of balance in patients with type 2 diabetes.