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TLR4Toll-Like Receptor-4
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The binding of LPS to CD14/LPS-binding protein and Toll-like receptor-4 triggers multiple signal cascades that activate nuclear factor-[kappa]B and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and lead to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-[alpha] (Triantafilou and Triantafilou 2002).
The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4; OMIM*603030), a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, is predominantly expressed on monocytes and macrophages (1).
Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. Immunology 2004;113:153-62.
Bowman, "Endotoxin, toll-like receptor-4, and atherosclerotic heart disease," Current Cardiology Reviews, vol.
Conduah et al., "Innate immune signaling by toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) shapes the inflammatory microenvironment in colitis-associated tumors," Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol.
Kubes, "Platelets express functional Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)," Blood, vol.
Ding, "Toll-like receptor-4 and cytokine cascade in stroke after exercise, " Neurological Research, vol.
Selvaraj et al., "Toll-like receptor-4 mediates neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid [beta]-peptide and the membrane lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal, " Experimental Neurology, vol.
Kolb, "Cutting edge: heat shock protein 60 is a putative endogenous ligand of the toll-like receptor-4 complex," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
Madrigal et al., "Stress-induced neuroinflammation: role of the Toll-like receptor-4 pathway," Biological Psychiatry, vol.