At too high a cuff pressure, the tracheal mucosa is damaged, resulting in a spectrum of problems: from sore throat to tracheal stenosis to tracheo-oesophageal fistula
.  At too low a cuff pressure, leaking makes ventilation difficult, and aspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) become more likely.
Non-Respiratory Causes Diagnosis Cases Percentage Birth Asphyxia 26 10.4% Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia 3 1.2% Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula
2 0.8% Congenital Heart Disease 1 0.4% Pierre Robin Sequence 1 0.4% Table 3.
Poppy Dickson spent the first six months of her life in Alder Hey Hospital, after being born with anumber of conditions - including tracheo-oesophageal fistula
(TOF) which means her oesophagus failed to grow, leaving her with a stoma in her neck.
Ndjitoyap, "Tracheo-oesophageal fistula
in highly active antiretroviral therapy patient with AIDS," OA Case Reports, vol.
H-type tracheo-oesophageal fistula
. Arch dis child fetal neonatal Ed 2007; 92(1): F40.
He was born with tetralogy of Fallot - a hole in the heart and defective valves - and tracheo-oesophageal fistula
, a rare defect in which the bottom end of the food pipe is joined to the windpipe.
Lechat, "The epidemiology of tracheo-oesophageal fistula
and oesophageal atresia in Europe.
Anaesthetic and surgical airway management during tracheo-oesophageal fistula
Investigation of the intraabdominal oesophagus and hiatus in fetal rats with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula
. Pediatr Surg Int 2001; 17: 97-100, doi: 10.1007/s003830000456.
Children with congenital gastrointestinal problems, such as tracheo-oesophageal fistula
, will inevitably have difficulty due to the dysmotility of the oesophagus, which persists even after surgical correction.
He had tracheo-oesophageal fistula
, a condition where his oesophagus was joined to his lungs instead of his stomach, and endured major surgery at just 30 hours old to correct the problem.
A tracheo-oesophageal fistula
(TOF) is a communication between the trachea and oesophagus which can be congenital or acquired.