and free-rider problems that lead to the tragedy of the commons
The Institutional Analysis and Development framework challenges the predictions of previous models such as Hardin's tragedy of the commons
(1968), (non-iterated) prisoner dilemma and Olson's problems of collective action plaguing large groups (1965).
For the tragedy of the commons
archetype, for example, this involves diagnosing the commons, identifying the incentives that need to be managed and relevant timeframes, and analysing issues that may interfere in successful action.
The broadest rebuttal of the claim that the tragedy of the commons
proves that common property will self-destruct has been advanced by Carol Rose.
The tragedy of the commons
is a theory used to explain the depletion of shared resources by individuals acting in their own self-interest with no regard for others; examples include the overfishing of the world's oceans, pollution of groundwater aquifers shared by different communities, and, in the extreme case, the settlement of the Americas by Europeans.
The development by John Locke of the theory of individual, especially private property rights, may be taken as solving the problem posed by the tragedy of the commons
Cold War Pastures: Garret Hardin and 'The Tragedy of the Commons
Unfortunately, considering that California's initial attempts to achieve voluntary reductions in water usage were ineffective, it appears the state is at risk of experiencing a tragedy of the commons
regarding water--there simply is not enough to meet everyone's wants or needs.
See Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons
," Science 162, no.
Wall argues that the idea of the tragedy of the commons
has been used to justify enclosure, both in the eighteenth century, in England, and in Africa today.
A tragedy of the commons
in a violent, unequal world is where we are heading unless nations and international bodies cooperate.
A passing familiarity with the Realpolitik of climate change suggests that this is an intimidating -- if not intractable -- challenge, displaying elements of the most difficult political and social quandaries: the prisoner's dilemma, the free-rider problem, and the tragedy of the commons