1,12 Increase in postoperative complications like hemolytic and allergic reactions, transfusion- associated acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, graft-verse-host disease and infection as well as mortality due to blood transfusions in either orthopaedic or other fields of surgery are reported in numerous studies.
Among these complications most common reasons of mortality were graft-verses- host disease (85-100%), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (2-15%) and transfusion- associated acute lung injury (5-10%).
Reducing unnecessary and inappropriate allogeneic blood transfusions by implementing better bleeding management protocols will help to reduce the incidence of adverse events such as transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), transfusion-associated circulatory overload
(TACO), transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and thrombotic adverse events (TAEs).
In fact, hemolytic transfusion reactions (ABO and non-ABO) accounted for 27% of transfusion-related fatalities reported to the US Food and Drug Administration in 2009--right behind transfusion-associated lung injury (30%) and equal to transfusion-associated circulatory overload
The leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality are unrelated to viral transmission and include bacterial contamination of platelets, patient misidentification, transfusion-related acute lung injury or TRALI, and transfusion-associated circulatory overload
The study, published online in Transfusion, also reports rates of transfusion-associated circulatory overload
also were reduced by 49%.