Nonstandard abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease; hs, high sensitivity; cTnT, cardiac troponin T eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; [eGFR.sub.cys], eGFR calculated by using cystatin C; [eGFR.sub.creat], eGFR calculated by using creatinine; UACR
, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; LVMI, LV mass index; LVEF, LV ejection fraction; CAC, coronary artery calcification; IQR, interquartile range.
was reduced significantly by treatment week 4 in the 2-mcg group, and the reduction was sustained during the entire treatment phase, peaking at -28% at week 12.
was classified as normoalbuminuria = UACR
< 30 mg/g, microalbuminuria as UACR
30-299 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as UACR
[greater than or equal to] 300 mg/g.
The extracted data included publication date, study characteristics (sample size, follow-up period), patient characteristics (age, sex, diabetes mellitus), types of interventions (type, dosage, and duration of therapy), and intervention outcomes, including mean arterial pressure, SBP, DBP, target goal of BP, urinary protein related outcome (UAE, 24-h urine protein, UACR
, or UPCR), and all-cause mortality, incidence of ESRD, cardiovascular events, and adverse events.
In diabetics, urinary excretion of NGAL was significantly higher in microalbuminuric in comparison with normoalbuminuric patients and controls and correlated positively with UACR
, indicating diabetic tubular damage at the early stage of DN [18, 23, 25, 26, 30].
Microalbuminuria Assay and UACR
. Freshly voided urine samples were collected from all dogs in both groups.
In those patients, normoalbuminuria was defined as UACR
<30 mg/g, microalbuminuria was defined as UACR
cutoff of 30-299 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria was defined as UACR
[greater than or equal to] 300 according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association .
A statistically significant proportion of subjects achieved >40% reduction in UACR
from baseline in the 0.75 mg group vs.
The study also did not establish whether calculating a patient's UACR
adds incremental prognostic information to other new, prognostic biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides.
was calculated using urine albumin and creatinine levels from an untimed spot urine collection.
Multiple stepwise linear regressions and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the relationship of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin with total urinary uromodulin, HbA1c, UACR
, CR, BUN, CH, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and blood pressure.
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR
) decreased by 23.7 and 18.3 percent (P = 0.054 and 0.18, respectively) for SOTA 200 mg and 400 mg, respectively, versus placebo in participants with baseline UACR