C57BL/6 mice subjected to 250 [micro]l NTS showed an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) on days 9/10 compared to the groups subjected to 25 or 100 [micro]l NTS (Figure 2(b)).
NTN induction in both strains resulted in significantly increased UAER compared to the healthy controls on days 2-3, 6-7, 16-17, and 36-37 after NTS injection (Figure 3(a)).
Even though more evidence is needed to better understand the role of CaD in other diabetes-related microangiopathies such as DN, recent findings have demonstrated a strong rationale for its use in reducing UAER
and markers of inflammation as well as improving endothelial function.
Twenty four hours' urine samples were collected from all the subjects for UAER
. The blood sample was taken for estimation of random blood sugar.
Patients with overt DN who take orally a lecithinized formulation of rhein turned better through decreasing microglobulin blood beta 2 ([beta]2MG), serum creatinine (Scr), serum cystatin C (CysC), and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER
The 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER
) was determined as urinary albumin output over a 24 h period.
According to Gento-Montecatini, micro-albuminuria is present when the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER
) in 24-hour urine or short time collected urine during daytime is in the range of 30-300 mg/24hr (20-200 microgm/min), which is equivalent to 0.46 to 4.6 micromol/24 hr.
In Wistar rats treated with low- or high-dose sitagliptin during 16 weeks, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER
), serum creatinine, and kidney hypertrophy were significantly decreased.
(c) The STZ-induced diabetic mice treated with AICAR or metformin exhibited a significant reduction in urine albumin excretion rate (UAER
The development of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes defined as a urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER
) of [greater than or equal to] 20 [micro]g/min strongly predicts end stage renal disease and is also an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, as well as cardiovascular mortality [1, 2].
Volume of Urine (UV), Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate (UAER
), and Urine Protein/Urine Creatinine (Up/Ucr) Ratio.