Thus, they became utility distribution companies (UDCs
), retaining ownership of distribution facilities that they operate as regulated common carriers.
Housing Action Trusts and UDCs
have been given what were previously local authority responsibilities over particular areas.
sector has typically enjoyed strong investment-grade ratings, due in large measure to lower operational risks than those faced by integrated utilities, ongoing regulatory support for investments in T&D infrastructure and pipeline replacement and safety programs at the LDCs, and a rising proportion of investments regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which Fitch typically deems more supportive than state regimes.
Arguably the biggest reason for UDCs
being laggards in the field of ICT is not having indigenous development of ICT.
If the UDCs
had never been, if Heseltine had not been Secretary of State for the Environment in 1980, would the renaissance of British cities would be half as advanced as it is today?
The third tranche of UDCs
in 1988 - Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol and Central Manchester, together with Birmingham Heartlands and Plymouth a few years later - were clearly different in that the areas were relatively small - a few hundred rather than several thousand acres - and were contained within one local authority district.
The second reason for the continued prominence of pharmaceutical MNCs in the UDCs
is the link these MNCs maintain with the doctor community and with the state bureaucracy.
'But while urban development corporations (UDCs
) are to be created in the Thurrock and London parts of the Thames Gateway and in Northampton to make things happen at the local level, elsewhere some vague 'partnership' arrangements are proposed which are unlikely to be so effective.
Regional governments could take over the responsibility for rendering key quangos like UDCs
and TECs more accountable.
Profitability ratios have been used extensively in the West, but have hardly been touched in the underdeveloped countries (UDCs
Making It Happen offers no clear explanation of why the Thames Gateway needs UDCs
but the other growth areas do not.